Shivalik Hills


The youngest mountain chain of Greater Himalayas,The Shivalik hills are extended from Jammu and Kashmir,Uttarakhand to Arunachal Pradesh. Shivalik Hills are sub mountain range of Himalayas with many other sub ranges extend through Nepal, Bhutan to Sikkim. The Siwalik Hills are known for fossil of large animals such as giant tortoise, the sloth bear and Sivatherium. Shivalik Fossil Park is the major attraction along with famous the Doon Valley also called Duns or Doons.

Anamalai Hills


The Anaimalai Hills is also known as Elephant Hill located in the border of state of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Anaimalai Hills is one of the sub range of majestic Western ghat with the highest peak Anamudi at an elevation of 2,695 m (8,842 ft) in Kerala. Lower slope of beautiful Anamalai Hills are used for tea and coffee plantations and host a wide ranges of wildlife in Eravikulam National Park,Anamalas Tiger Reserve and Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary.

Ashambu Hills


The Ashambu Hills also known as Agasthyamalai Hills situated between the Kollam District of Kerala and Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu. Agasthyamalai is the highest peak among the other 26 peaks hill peaks of Ashambu Hills with an elevation of 1,868 m (6,129 ft). These hills provide natural habitat to more then 2,000 species of medicinal plants and wide ranges of threatened animal species. Ashambu Hills also receive good amount of annual rainfall and home to several important rivers and waterfalls.

Cardamom Hills


The Cardamom Hills is situated at southeast Kerala and part of great Western Ghats. Cardamom Hills is one of the selected World Heritage Site and known for its cardamom spice,pepper and coffee. The mountainous terrain,dense forest and deep valley of Cardamom Hills is home to Periyar and Pamba rivers and protected areas for endangered species of animals. The Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary,Srivilliputtur Wildlife Sanctuary and Meghamalai reserve forest are home to Indian Elephant, Nilgiri tahr, lion-tailed macaque,Grizzled Giant Squirrel and Great Indian Hornbill.

Biligiriranga Hills


The Biligiriranga Hills range is situated at the confluence of two major mountain ranges of India the Majestic Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats. Biligiriranga Hills called B R Hills is famous for Lord Venkatesha temple and diverse flora and fauna. Biligiriranga Hills offers animals to visit both the mountain ranges and provide shelter to wild elephants, gaur the largest bovines and other large and small animals. Karnataka has more famous hills like Chamundi hills and Nandi Hills.

Palani Hills


The Palani Hills are extension of the Western Ghats ranges in Tamil Nadu state. Palani Hills is one of the major tourist destination in south India along with attractions such as hill station of Kodaikanal,Lord Karthikeyan temple,mountain peak and Palani Hills Wildlife Sanctuary.

Nilgiri Hills

nilgiris hills

The Nilgiri Hills are major sub range of large Western Ghats with more then 20 mountains peaks. Nilgiri Hills also called Blue Mountains are located at the junction of three major south Indian states Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Doddabetta Peak is the highest peak of the Nilgiris with a height of 2,637 meters (8,652 ft) followed by Kolaribetta, Kattadadu and Kulkudi. The wildlife corridor or green corridor is home to some of the highest waterfalls of India and provide habitat to countless types of flowerless plants and so many exotic species.

Nallamala Hills


The famous Nallamala Hills are one of the range of Eastern Ghats stretch over Mahabubnagar and Kadapa districts of Andhra Pradesh. Nallamala Hills run parallel to the beautiful Coromandel Coast and later merges with the Tirupati hills. The hills are known for hot climate, dense forest with open jungle and  the popular and beautiful wild animal Leopard. Other famous hills of Andhra Pradesh are Ananthagiri Hills and Horsley Hills.

Lushai Hills

Lushai Hills

The Lushai Hills is also called Mizo Hills is a part of  Patkai range or the purvanchal mountain ranges of India. Lushai hills is very rich in Flora & Fauna and covered with dense bamboo jungle and inhabited by the Mizo and Lushais tribes of North East India.

Garo-Khasi-Jaintia Hills

The Garo,Khasi and Jaintia Hills are the three major hills of Patkai range located in the state of Meghalaya. The group of mountains are extremely rich in flora & fauna and home to highest waterfalls in India along with the wettest place on earth Cherrapunji and nearby Mawsynram. The unique range of flora and fauna attracts naturalists and photographers to Meghalaya.

Today jokes

  • Teacher: Why are you so late?
    Student: There was someone who lost a hundred dollar bill!
    Teacher: Oh, that is nice. Were you helping him to find it?
    Student: No, I was standing on


  • A teacher asked his student:
    what is the most important source
    of finance for starting a successful business?
    Students: “Father in law”.


  • Exams are like girl friends
    – difficult 2 understand
    – too many questions
    – more explanations are needed
    And results are most of the time failure…
  • Boss: Where were u born?
    Sardar: India
    Boss: ok, which part?
    Sardar: what do you mean by ’which part’? … the Whole body was born in India


  • 1st friend: hey can i use your mobile to call my girlfriend!
    2nd friend: yeha sure just hit redial
  • Wife to Husband: In my dream you were buying a diamond ring for me!
    Husband : yeah I saw your dad was paying for it


  • In exam madam said write Ur Loverz Name in Paper..
    After 02 seconds GIRLZ said: Finished madam..
    After 1 hour BOYZ Said: Extra Sheet plzzz…
  • Teacher: Imagine you are living in a world of dinosaurs and suddenly you are surrounded by hungry dinosaurs, just waiting to feed on you. What do you do?    Student: That is easy, I would just stop imagining right a way


  • My life is a painful battle between my love to FOOD and not gaining WEIGHT. Funny but true


  • Wife: I wish I was a newspaper so I would be in your hands all day.
    Husband: Really! but you probably did not realize that I am not reading the same newspaper each day! but a new one everyday



JALLIKATTU(வீர விளையாட்டு)

A youth trying to take control of a bull in Jallikattu at Alanganallur

Jallikattu (Tamil: சல்லிகட்டு, challikaṭṭtu) also known Eruthazhuvuthal (Tamil: ஏறுதழுவல், ērutazhuval) or Manju virattu (Tamil: மஞ்சு விரட்டு), is an event held in Tamil Nadu as a part of Pongal celebrations onMattu Pongal day. Bulls are bred specifically by people of the village for the event and attended mainly by many villages’ temple bulls (kovil kaalai). A temple bull is like the head of all cattle in a village; special rituals will be performed for this temple bull during important days.

Jallikattu has been known to be practised during the Tamil classical period. It was common among the ancient tribes who lived in the ‘Mullai’ geographical division of the ancient Tamil country. The event often results in major injuries and deaths with over 200 deaths over the past two decades. Animal activists and PETA India have protested against the practice over the years. Along with human injuries and fatalities, the bulls themselves often sustain serious injuries.

In May 2014, the Supreme Court of India banned the practice, citing animal welfare issues. On 8 January, 2016, the Government of India passed an order exempting Jallikattu from all performances where bulls can not be used, effectively reversing the ban. However, on 14 January, 2016, the Supreme Court of India upheld its ban on the event, leading to protests all over Tamil Nadu.


Jallikattu originated from the Tamil words Jalli and Kattu, referring to silver or gold coins tied to the bulls’ horns.


An inscription at Government museum in Tamil Nadu

Bull baiting was common among the ancient tribes who lived in the ‘Mullai’ geographical division of the ancient Tamil country. Later, it became a platform for display of bravery and prize money was introduced for entertainment. A seal from the Indus Valley Civilization depicting the practice is preserved in the National Museum, New Delhi. A cave painting in white kaolin discovered near Madurai depicting a lone man trying to control a bull is estimated to be about 1,500 years old.





These include vaṭi viraṭṭu where a bull being released from an enclosure need to be held on to for a predetermined distance or time to win the prize, vēli viraṭṭu where a bull is released in an open ground with participants trying to subdue the animal and vaṭam manjuviraṭṭu where a bull is tied to a 50-foot-long rope (15 m) and a team of players attempt to subdue the bull within a specific time.

Training and preparation


The calves that are reared to become bulls are fed a nutritious diet so that they develop into strong and sturdy animals. The calves, once they reach adolescence are taken to small events to familiarize them with the atmosphere and specific training is given based on the variant of the event it is meant for. It is claimed that before the bulls are released, they are subjected to medical tests including tests for alcohol and substance that will aggravate the bulls. These tests are said to be conducted by a team of government vets under the supervision of the district collector. However, it has been argued that since Jallikattu was itself declared illegal, no test standards can be legally set. The human participants in the Jallikattu event are said to undergo medical tests and are tested for alcohol. For the people who raise these bulls, the animals are alleged to be sacred to them.


our heroism game in tamilnadu

Rumbutan Fruit (ரம்புட்டான்பழங்கள்)

The rambutan fruit is probably the most exotic fruits on this planet. It really is indigenous to Malaysia however is often grown all through Southeast Asia. The fresh fruit is oval-shaped and also roughly 1 – 2 inches lengthy. It features a slim, leather like skin engrossed in several tubercles that seem like spines having a curve in the tip. The fruit’s exterior skin differs from greenish-yellow to orange or even crimson. Visually, the fruit looks like a little sea urchin. Inside, the juicy flesh is generally white or even rose-tinted and also sticks to the ovoid seed.

The rambutan is really a fruit cultivated mostly in Southeast Asia, and is also cousin towards the longan and the lychee. It develops on trees which are 10-20 feet (3.05-6.1 m) higher. The trees usually are prized in landscaping since they’re evergreens. The rambutan generates two crops every year, a smaller crop in mid-spring along with a bigger crop at the end of fall. Not every rambutan trees generate crops, simply because several trees usually are male. Several trees are hermaphrodites, producing both female and male flowers, while some are entirely female. The hermaphrodite tree is the most prized. The blossoms on the rambutan have got a fairly sweet aroma and therefore are usually utilized in flower bouquets. They’re white or even green in color, plus some variation exists in between the female and male flower. Cross-pollination is essential in female trees, or even the tree will generate no fruit. However, bees are enticed by the quality of nectar within rambutan blooms, so this usually presents no large problem within a big orchard.

Health benefits of Rambutan

Rambutan fruit, clinically titled as Nephelium Lappaceum is really a exotic fruit. The indigenous of this fruit is Southeast Asia and it’s also also located in locations such as Cambodia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, Australia, India, Africa, Ecuador, Central America and also the Caribean Islands. Rambutan fruit has abundant amounts of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, phosphorus, iron, vitamin C and also calcium. The stem consists of saponin, tannin, iron, pectin ingredients and also flavonoids. The seeds of the fruit include polifenol and fat. All of these nutrition and also minerals provide this fruit therapeutic as well as healing quality.

1. Decreases unwanted fat

Please take a handful of rambutan seeds plus they could be consumed raw, crushed or even combined with various other foodstuff. They’re extremely effective in lessening the body fat.

2. Skin care


Rambutan seeds consumed raw, crushed or even combined with various other food are even good at creating the skin much healthier and also softer. The skin tone of the face also will become gentle.

3. Hair care

Take a couple of rambutan leaves and also clean them effectively. Include little water and create a paste of the leaves utilizing a blender. Filter the leaves’ extract utilizing a clean cloth. Use the water extract towards the damp scalp and also continue doing this every day. You are able to watch an excellent hair regrowth.

4. Treats Dysentery

Peel the skin of rambutan and also cut the skin into tiny bits. Add three glasses of water and also boil them till the water continues to be half. Let the water to get cool, strain and after that take in the liquid twice a day.

5. Treats Diabetes

Take about 5 seeds and after that fry them. Mash the dry fried seeds and also add the powder to the cup of cold water. Take it a couple of times each day.

6. Cures Fever

Take 15 grams of dried rambutan skin. Add this to 3 glasses of water after which boil for Fifteen minutes. Let the liquid to turn cool, strain it and after that take in 3 times each day.

7. Increasing Energy

The first Rambutan Fruit Advantage is can easily raising our energy, why ? Simply because Rambutan includes a plenty of Carbohydrate as well as protein, and beside it, rambutan has got the full of water content. Therefore, for you personally who was simply tired, I think Rambutan is definitely the great fruit that you should get back your energy and also drop thirst.

8. Strengthen Bones

Well, the 2nd benefit of rambutan is can easily enhance our bones, and also this advantage was brought on by higher calcium, phosphorus and also irons content on rambutan. If you wish to improve your health and powerful bones, you have to attempt to consuming rambutan.

9. Increase our immune system

Higher Vitamin C content within rambutan can improve our metabolic process or even defense mechanisms. Higher Metabolism can safeguard or even help save us from several hazardous illness, and also bad condition. Therefore, that was make Rambutan is good for overall health.

10. Anti-Cancer

Rambutan consists of anti-oxidant components. Research carried out by the University of Chiang Mai in Thailand discovered that rambutan fruit, seeds and also skin have got effective anti-oxidants known as flavonoids. Several kinds of flavonoids are thought to lessen cholesterol levels, anti-cancer and also anti-inflammatory.

11. Protector of Free Radicals

One of many compounds included in the skin of rambutan is gallic acid. This particular substance can serve as remedies to free-radicals mainly because it assists safeguard the body from oxidative damage. Again, this is often an assistance to battle cancer.

12. Rich in Vitamin C

Since already discussed above, rambutan full of vitamin C. If a person is taking Ten to twelve fruits rambutan, he was getting 75-90 mg ascorbic acid, a lot more than double the amount suggested quantity within the everyday menu. Along with operating just as one anti-oxidant, vitamin C can easily avoid cell damage and enables the assimilation of iron.

13. Blood Formation

Sweet fruit also offers small quantities of copper. This substance is required to produce more white blood cells and also red blood cells. Additionally, rambutan also includes iron that might help avoid anemia.

14. Healthy Digestion

Rambutan also offers fiber that will help an individual prevent bowel problems. Additionally, rambutan may also destroy parasites within the intestines and enables alleviate signs and symptoms of diarrhea.

15. Improve sperm quality and cancer

Vitamin C is recognized as the primary substances that the body requires in a number of essential procedures, which range from the collagen production (fibrous protein which forms connective tissue in bones), fat carry electron transport from numerous enzymatic reactions, hyper-healthy gums, the regulation of levels of cholesterol, and also super defense mechanisms. Abundant with vitamin C assist in preventing numerous cancers, which includes lung, colon, pancreas, bladder, breast and Food. Vitamin C might also decrease free-radicals which trigger cancer, since these vitamins are great anti-oxidants. Vitamin C can also be very important for sperm development. The possible lack of vitamin C in males could be restricted in getting children. An enhancement to this needs duration of one month simply by growing vitamin C consumption of 500 milligrams. The quality as well as quantity of sperm and its actions could be enhanced by growing consumption of vitamin C.

Other advantages of vitamin C decreases the chance of cataracts, strengthening blood capillary walls, and reduces the chance of cardiovascular disease. Scientists think that vitamin C could also prevent aging by maintaining the white blood cells.

More about Rambhutan

The rambutan is really a nice fruit that many palates find interesting. Ten to 20 fruits will certainly grow in groups. Their external appearance appears a bit foreboding, since it is coated in spikes. The spikes, however, are gentle and won’t damage one that touches or even deals with the rambutan. The outside of the rambutan could be orange to deep red in color. Every fruit is tiny, usually a maximum of 2 inches (5 cm) lengthy. The inside could be white or even mild pink in color. One large seed, just like the seed of the peach or even plum, signifies the center of the fruit. The seed needs to be discarded, since it is toxic.

The rambutan is usually consumed as dessert, just served fresh and also uncooked. However, several utilize the rambutan for making preserves or even jelly. Several cultures also employ the roots of rambutan trees for substitute medications.

Origin and distribution

It is just a well-known thought that rambutan are indigenous to Malaysia and Indonesia. The initial record of rambutan trees reveal that they were grown by the Malayan jungle people about their short-term settlements, an exercise followed to date. Rambutan trees are today discovered expanding naturally in Southern China, the Indochina region as well as Southeast Asia. With ever increasing popularity among non-Asians and growing interest in rambutan globally, the fruit is at present regarded as an essential agricultural produce. It really is developed in a commercial sense in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam, Sri Lanka, Australia, Hawaii, Vietnam and also Central America. Even just in 1981, rambutan were cultivated commercially on approximately 700 ha of land in Singapore. Fast urbanization meant rambutan plantations shall no longer be present in Singapore. To satisfy the requirements of the individuals, Singapore has remained the biggest importer of rambutan on the planet, comprising a lot more than 60% of world imports.

Types of Rambutan

•             Lebakbooloos

•             Seematjan

•             Seenjonja

•             Maharlika

•             Sectangkooweh

•             Seelengkeng

•             Seekonto

Nutritive Valuation on Rambutan

It’s really an excellent method of obtaining vitamin C and also calcium, rambutan fruit offers pretty a great deal of niacin, iron, protein and fiber. Research conducted recently learned that consuming nine to ten vegetables and fruit of rambutan family each day, were good at reducing blood pressure level.

Fruit comparison tables. Presentation of mineral and vitamin content including nutrition charts of the Rambutan fruits.

Nutritive value per 100 g of Rambutan

Principle               Nutritive value

Protein 1.0 g

Cholesterol         0.0 mg

Thiamin                0.01mg

Vitamin C             7.4 mg

Sodium 16.5 mg

Potassium           63.0 mg

Calcium                33.0 mg

Vitamin A            4.5 IU

Iron        0.5 mg

How to eat Rambutan

As soon as the fruit is ripe, you can easily twist it in the center along with hands and also the fruit just opens up. If this doesn’t come out, create a little cut over the skin of the Rambutan using a knife and thoroughly open it up into two parts. The interior white color part like an egg is the delicious part. Within the edible part are definitely the seeds.

How to Store Rambutan

  • Keep rambutan within the refrigerator. Place them in a plastic pot and cover using a cover. They’re going to keep for around a week.
  • In the event you store them at normal room temperature, they’re going to last about Three days. In such instances, they’re best eaten within just 2 days of purchasing.
  • Rambutan might be kept in glass storage containers within the refrigerator if preferred.

Usage and potential


The rambutan fruit is consumed raw converted to jams or perhaps is cooked. The fruit, processed in syrup is immediately consumed off the can as well. In 1886, wine made from the fruit was placed within an exhibition in London. However, its recipe is unfamiliar as well as its manufacturing is considered to have stopped right after. The seeds are occasionally roasted and also eaten.


The pericarp or even the fruit walls, loaded with tannin and saponin are utilized in Java for a number of medical reasons. A mixture of it is sold by standard Malay medicine sellers. The Malays utilize a decoction of the roots to deal with fever. The bark and also the fruits are meant to have astringent qualities. The bark, converted into a decoction, is utilized to deal with tongue illnesses. Additionally it is given right after childbirth to new mothers. Rambutan fruit should really have anthelmintic qualities, assisting one eliminate intestinal worms. It’s also utilized in reducing diarrhea. The leaves are utilized as poultices to alleviate headaches.

Other uses

Young shoots are widely-used to dye yellow silk to green. A dye known as ayer banyar, produced from rambutan leaves and also fruits and coupled with various other components, is utilized for dyeing red silk black. The wood of the tree though hard has a tendency to split since it dries. It really is nevertheless utilized as timber.

Uses of Rambutan Fruit

  • The fruit is better consumed raw and doesn’t have a very lengthy shelf-life, and also this can vary from a couple of days up to week.
  • If you would like to lengthen this life, put this fruit in a punctured bag and keep it within the fridge.
  • To open the fruit adhere to this simple video that exhibits how you can cut around the outer shell effortlessly using a knife and take off the fleshy rambutan.
  • Rambutan fruit can be utilized in several dishes and drinks.
  • A exotic fruit salad, cocktails, smoothies, yogurts, deserts, jams, syrups, jellies, chutney, salsa and soup  are amongst the ways to use this delicate little fruit.
  • You could with confidence replace it in many lychee recipes for something different like a stir-fry or even tasty dish

Its one of the nature gift ,so please eat in a life of this fruit  aleast one time

Today jokes

  • Girl: Hi Darling! Boy: Hi Chellam!! (Sending Failed) Girl: Are u there?Or Busy? Boy: Hey am here only (Sending failed) Girl: Are u ignoring me?? Boy: No No..Network Problem (Sending Failed) Girl: Ok Fine.Don’t talk with me Gud Bye!! Boy: POI SAAVU DI ‘(Message Sent)’ “Enna Vaazhka da idhu…”
  • A College boy’s leave letter :- Respected H O D sir, As i m suffering from loveyopathy i am unable to correct any figure , so kindly requesting you to arrange a good homely girl in our college for me. Neenga Enaku mama mathiri. thanking u. Yours Lovingly, Unga mapla.
  • Teacher : Yenda naan varumpodhu mattum Kannaadi podura? Student : Doctor dhaan Thalaivali varumpodhu mattum Kannaadi poda sonnar! Teacher: ????


  • “A,B” kku bore adicha enna seiyum? “CD” pottu parkum. “E,F” kku udambu sareillanna enga pogum? “GH”kku than. “I,J,K,L”kku enimy yaru? “MN”than. “O,P” ration’ku pona? “Q”la than nikum. “R,S” ku thala valicha? “T”kudikkum. “U,V,W,X,Y” ku parakanumna? “z” (jet)la pogum…
  • AKKA vaasalil irunthu padikkiral, THANGAI theruvil irunthu padikkiral. yen theriyuma ? AKKAVUKU ENTRANCE EXAM, THANGAIKU PUBLIC EXAM

COURTALLAM Falls (குற்றாலம் )


பசுமையான மலைத்தொடரும்,அடர்ந்த வனங்களும், மூலிகைப் புதர்களும், அரிய வன விலங்குகளும், பறவைகளும் நிறைந்த அற்புத பூமி குற்றாலம். அகத்தியர் கால் பதித்த திருத்தலம். தென்னாட்டின் மூலிகைக் குளியலறை அல்லது தென்னகத்து ஸ்பா என்று பெருமையோடு அழைக்கப்படும் இந்த குற்றாலம் ஏழைகளும் அனுபவிக்கும் இயற்கை அன்னையின் சீதனம். குற்றாலத்தின் குளுமையை அனுபவிக்கவே ஆண்டுதோறும் பல லட்சக்கணக்கான மக்கள் இந்நகருக்கு வந்து செல்கின்றனர். தென் தமிழ்நாட்டில் உள்ள புகழ்மிக்க அருவி நகரான குற்றாலத்தைப் பற்றி தெரிந்து கொள்வோம்.



குற்றால சீசன் காலம் (Season Time)

தென்மேற்கு பருவக்காற்று வீசத் தொடங்கிவிட்டாலே தமிழ் நாட்டு எல்லையில் கேராளாவுடன் உரசிக் கொண்டிருக்கும் மலைத்தொடர்களில் மழை பெய்ய ஆரம்பித்துவிடும். இந்த மழை நீர் நதியாக உருவெடுத்து, மூலிகைக் காடுகள் வழியாக தவழ்ந்து வந்து குற்றாலத்து மலைகளில் அருவியாக கொட்டுகிறது. இந்த அருவி நீர் உடலையும், மனதையும் ஒருங்கே குளிர்வித்துக் கொண்டிருக்கும் இயற்கை அதிசயம். தென்மேற்குப் பருவ மழை உச்சத்தில் இருக்கும் பொழுது ஓயாத சாரலுடனும், பெருத்த காற்றுடனும், மழைநீர் பெருக்கெடுத்து வெள்ளமாக வெள்ளியை உருக்கி விட்ட அருவிகளாகக் கொட்டுகிறது. அந்த உச்ச கட்ட பருவ காலத்தில் குற்றாலத்தில் தங்கியிருந்து அந்த இதமான சாரலை அனுபவிப்பது பொன்னான அனுபவம். ஜூன் மாதத்தில் தென்மேற்கு பருவகாலம் ஆரம்பித்தவுடன் குற்றால அருவியில் தண்ணீர் ஆர்ப்பரித்து விழும். ஜூன், ஜூலை, ஆகஸ்டு மாதங்கள் வரை அருவிகளில் தண்ணீர் கொட்டும் காலமே “குற்றால சீசன்” என அழைக்கப்படுகிறது.



மூலிகைகளும், பழவகைகளும் (Medicine & Furits)

இந்த அருவி நீர் பல்வேறு மூலிகை குணங்கள் உடையனவாகவும், பல நோய்களுக்கு குணமளிப்பதாகவும் ஆராய்ச்சியில் கண்டு பிடிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. மலையின் மேல் ஓடி வரும் மழைநீர் வெள்ளம், மூலிகைச் சாறுகளுடன் கலந்து தண்ணோடு பல்வேறு கனி மங்களையும் சேர்த்துக் கொண்டு, மலையின் பல பாகங்கள் வழியே கீழே பாய்கின்றன. பாக்கும், தெளிதேனும், பாகும், பலாவும் நிறைந்த மலை. இங்கு 2000 வகையான மலர்களும், செடிகளும் இருப்பதாக கண்டறியப்பட்டுள்ளது. ரங்குஸ்தான், மலை வாழை, டொரியன், பலா, மங்குஸ்தான், சீதா, கொய்யா, சப்போட்டா, மா, நெல்லி, போன்ற எண்ணற்ற பழ வகைகள் இந்த மலைகளில் காய்க்கின்றன. பல அறிய மூலிகைகள் மலையின் மேலும் பண்ணைகளிலும் வளருகின்றன.

ஒன்பது அருவிகள் (Nine Falls)

குற்றாலத்தில் மொத்தம் சிறிதும் பெரிதுமாக 9 அருவிகள் உள்ளன. பழைய அருவி, மெயின் பால்ஸ் என்று இனிய தமிழில் அழைக்கப் படும் பேரருவி, புலி யருவி, ஐந்தருவி, சிற்றருவி, புது அருவி, ஐந்தருவி, பழத்தோட்ட அருவி என்று ஏழு அருவிகள் மலையைச் சுற்றி மலையடிவாரங்களிலும், தேனருவி, செண்பகதேவி என்று இரு அருவிகள் என்று மலையின் மேலேயும் அமைந்துள்ளன.

பேரருவியும், குற்றாலநாதரும் (Main Falls)


மெயின் ஃபால்ஸ் எனப்படும் பேரருவி குற்றாலம் நகருக்குள் இருக்கிறது இந்த அருவி 91 அடி உயரத்தில் இருந்து மலையில் பாய்ந்து முதலில் பொங்குமாங்கடல் என்ற பள்ளத்தில் விழுந்து அதை நிரப்பி வழிந்து கீழே இறங்குகிறது. வெகு தூரத்தில் இருந்தே கண்களைக் கவரும் பேரருவி இது. தூரத்தில் இருந்து பார்க்க கண்களை அகலவெட்டாமல் லயிக்கச் செய்யும் எழில் மிகு அருவி இது. தண்ணீர் நிரம்பி விழும் காலங்களில் அந்த அருவி ஐந்து கிலோ மீட்டர் தொலைவில் இருக்கும் தென்காசியிலிருந்தே காட்சியளிக்கும். பேரருவியில் பெண்கள் குளிப்பதற்கு தனியான இடம் அமைக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. இந்த அருவிக்கரையில் அமைந்துள்ள குற்றாலநாதர் ஆலயம் சிவபெருமானின் பஞ்ச சபைகளில் சித்திர சபையாக திகழ்கிறது. இங்கு அகத்திய முனிவர் நிறுவிய பராசக்தி பீடமும் அமைந்துள்ளது. சிற்றருவி- இது நடந்து செல்லும் தூரத்தில் பேரருவிக்கு மேல் அமைந்துள்ளது.

செண்பகாதேவி அருவி (Senbhadevi Falls)

பேரருவியில் இருந்து மலையில் 2 கி.மீ. தூரம் நடைப்பயணத்தில் செண்பகாதேவி அருவியை அடையலாம். இந்த அருவி தேனருவியிலிருந்து இரண்டரை கிலோமீட்டர் கீழ்நோக்கி ஆறாக ஓடி வந்து 30 அடி உயரத்தில் அருவியாக கொட்டுகிறது. அருவிக்கரையில் செண்பகாதேவி அம்மன் கோவில் உள்ளது. சித்ரா பவுர்ணமி நாளில் இந்த கோவிலில் சிறப்பான விழா கொண்டாடப்பட்டு வருகிறது. தேனருவி செண்பகாதேவி அருவியின் மேல் பகுதியில் உள்ளது. இந்த அருவி அருகே பல தேன்கூடுகள் அமைந்துள்ளதால் இந்த இடம் அபாயகரமானது. இந்த அருவிக்கு சென்று குளிப்பது தடை செய்யப்பட்டுள்ளது.

ஐந்தருவி  (Five Falls)


குற்றாலம் நகரில் இருந்து ஐந்து கிலோமீட்டர் தொலைவில் இருப்பது ஐந்தருவி. அழகிய மலைச்சாரல், சிறு சிறு ஆறுகள், பழத்தோட்டங்கள், தங்குமிடங்கள், ஒரு சிறிய ஏரி எல்லாம் தாண்டி வருகிறது ஐந்தருவி. இங்கு அருவி ஐந்து பிரிவாக வந்து விழுவதால் ஐந்தருவி என்று பெயர். திரிகூடமலையின் உச்சியில் இருந்து 40 அடி உயரத்திலிருந்து உருவாகி சிற்றாற்றின் வழியாக ஓடிவந்து 5 கிளைகளாக பிரிந்து விழுகிறது. இதில் பெண்கள் குளிக்க ஒரு அருவி கிளைகளும், ஆண்கள் குழந்தைகளுக்கு 3 கிளைகளும் உள்ளன. இங்கு சபரிமலை சாஸ்தா கோயிலும், முருகன் கோயிலும் உள்ளது. அடர்ந்த கானகங்கள் நிறைந்த மலைத்தொடர். மலையின் மேலே, உயரத்தில் எங்கேயோ, எங்கிருந்தோ பல நூறடிகளுக்கு வெள்ளிக் கம்பியாக ஒரு அருவி விழுந்து மீண்டும் கானகத்திற்குள் காணாமல் போய்க் கொண்டிருக்கிறது.

பழத்தோட்ட அருவி (வி.ஐ.பி. பால்ஸ்) (VIP Falls)

ஐந்தருவிக்கு போகும் முன்பாக ஒரு கிளைப் பாதை பிரிந்து மலையின் மேல் செல்கிறது. கொஞ்ச தூரம் சென்றதும் அரசாங்கத்தின் பழத்தோட்டத் துறை நடத்தும் ஒரு பழப்பண்ணை வருகிறது. அந்த பண்ணையின் உள்ளே நுழைந்தால் அடர்ந்த வனத்தின் நடுவே இயற்கை எழில் கொஞ்சும் இரு அருவிகள் அங்கே உள்ளன. அதற்குப் பழத்தோட்ட அருவி என்று பெயர். ஆனால் இந்த அருவியில் பொதுமக்கள் குளிக்க முடியாது. வி ஐ பிக்கள் மட்டுமே குளிக்க முடியும். புலியருவி குற்றாலத்தில் இருந்து சுமார் 2 கி.மீ., தொலைவில் உள்ளது.

பழைய குற்றாலம் (Old Kutralaam)


அருவி குற்றாலத்தில் இருந்து கிழக்கு பகுதியில் சுமார் 16 கி.மீ., தொலைவில் அழகனாற்று நதியில் அமைந்துள்ளது. பாலருவி – இது தேனருவி அருகே அமைந்துள்ளது.

சுற்றுலா மையங்கள் (Tourist Place)

குற்றாலத்தை சுற்றிலும் ஐந்து கிலோ மீட்டர் சுற்றளவில் பல பார்க்க வேண்டிய இடங்கள் உள்ளன. தென்காசி கோவில் அதில் முக்கியமானது. திருமலைக் குமரன் கோவில் என்று ஒரு அழகிய குன்றத்துக் குமரன் கோவில் தவற விடக் கூடாத இடமாகும். குன்றின் மேல் உள்ள கோவிலில் நின்று பார்த்தால் சுற்றி பச்சை பசலேன வயற்பரப்பும் சுற்றிலும் மேகம் கவிந்த குற்றால மலைத்தொடருமாக இயற்கை அன்னையின் எழில் நமது கண்களையும் மனதையும் ஒருங்கே கொள்ளை கொள்ளும். அருகில் உள்ள இலஞ்சி என்ற கிராமத்தில் ஒரு அழகிய முருகன் கோவில் உள்ளது.

கேரளா எல்லை அருவிகள் (Kerala Border Falls)

குற்றாலத்தை அடுத்துள்ள செங்கோட்டையைத் தாண்டினால் ஆரியங்காவுக் கணவாயும், கேரளாவும், அச்சன் கோவிலும் வந்து விடும். கேரள எல்லையிலும் சில அருவிகள் உள்ளன. ஆளரவமில்லாத அற்புதமான அருவிகள் அவை. இன்னும் கொஞ்சம் தூரம் சென்றால் குற்றாலத்தின் நெரிசலைத் தவிர்த்தப் பச்சைப் பசேல் என்று போர்த்திக் கொண்ட அற்புதமான பாலருவி இருக்கிறது. தமிழ்நாட்டுப் பகுதிகளில் பாபநாசம் அகத்தியர் அருவியும், பாபநாசம் அணையும், பரிசலில் சென்றால் வரும் பாண தீர்த்தத்தையும் கண்டு குளித்து அனுபவிக்கலாம். ஒரு வாரம் தங்கி, கண்டு, ரசித்து அனுவவிக்க எண்ணற்ற இடங்கள் குற்றாலத்தைச் சுற்றி அமைந்துள்ளன.

அமைவிடம் (Location)

தென்காசியில் இருந்து 6 கிலோ மீட்டர் தொலைவிலும், மதுரையில் இருந்து 160 கிலோ மீட்டர் தொலைவிலும் குற்றாலம் அமைந்துள்ளது. தென்காசி ரயில் நிலையம் இங்கிருந்து 5 கிலோ மீட்டர் தொலைவில் உள்ளது. அங்கிருந்து குற்றாலத்திற்கு பேருந்து வசதி உண்டு. மதுரையிலிருந்து நிறைய பேருந்துகள் குற்றாலம் வரை செல்கிறது.

History of மீனாட்சி அம்மன் கோவில்

Meenakshi Amman Temple is a historic Hindu temple located on the southern bank of the Vaigai Riverin the temple city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is dedicated to Parvati, known as Meenakshi, and her consort, Shiva, here named Sundareswarar. The temple forms the heart and lifeline of the 2,500-year-old city of Madurai and is a significant symbol for the Tamil people, mentioned since antiquity in Tamil literature. Though the present structure was built between 1623 and 1655 CE.It is said that the temple was actually built in the 6th century BC by survivors of the Kumari Kandam. In 14th century, the Mughal Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the temple and looted it of its valuables. It was rebuilt by the Nayak ruler Vishwanatha Nayakar around the 16th century. It was Vishwanatha Nayak who rebuilt the temple in accordance to shilpa shastra. It houses 14 gopurams (gateway towers), ranging from 45–50m in height. The tallest is the southern tower, 51.9 metres (170 ft) high, and two golden sculptured vimanas, the shrines over the garbhagrihas (sanctums) of the main deities. The temple attracts 15,000 visitors a day, around 25,000 on Fridays, and receives an annual revenue of ₹ 60 million. There are an estimated 33,000 sculptures in the temple. It was on the list of top 30 nominees for the “New Seven Wonders of the World”. The temple is the most prominent landmark and most visited tourist attraction in the city. The annual 10-day Meenakshi Tirukalyanam festival, celebrated during April and May, attracts 1 million visitors. The gopura of the Meenakshi Amman Temple forms a part of theSeal of Tamil Nadu.



Meenakshi (IAST Mīnākṣī Tamil மீனாட்சி) is an avatar of the Hindugoddess Parvati – the consort of Shiva, one of the few Hindu female deities to have a major temple devoted to her. The name “Mīnachchi” means fish-eyed and is derived from the words “mīna” meaning fish and “akṣi” meaning eyes. The lady goddess Meenakshi is the principal deity of the temple, not Sundareswarar, unlike most Shiva temples in South Indiawhere Shiva is the principal deity. According to Hindu legend, in order to answer the prayers of the second Pandya king Malayadwaja Pandya and his wife Kanchanamalai, Parvati appeared out of the holy fire of the Putra Kameshti Yagna(sacrifice for childhood) performed by the king. According to another legend, the goddess herself gave notice to Kanchanamalai in one of her previous births that Kanchanamalai would have the privilege of mothering the goddess. The girl who came out of the holy fire had three breasts. A voice from the heavens told the king not to worry about the abnormality and added that the third breast would vanish as soon as the girl met her future husband. The happy king named the girl “Tadaatagai”and as the heir to the throne, Tadaatagai was trained carefully in all the 64 sastras, the fields of science .

As the time came for Tadaatagai’s coronation, she had to wage war in three worlds encompassing eight directions. After conquering Brahma’s Abode, Sathyaloka, Vishnu’s Abode, Vaikunta, and Devas’ abode Amaravati, she advanced to Shiva’s Abode Kailasha. She very easily defeated the bhoota ganas (IAST: Bhūtagana, meaning Shiva’s army) andNandi, the celestial bull of Shiva, and headed to attack and conquer Shiva. The moment she looked at Shiva, she was unable to fight and bowed her head down due to shyness, and the third breast vanished immediately.Tadaatagai realized that Shiva was her destined husband. She also realized that she was the incarnation of Parvati. Both Shiva and Tadaatagai returned to Madurai and the king arranged the coronation ceremony of his daughter, followed by her marriage with Shiva.

sculpture in temple column showing three figures

Vishnu weds Meenakshi to Shiva

The marriage was to be the biggest event on earth, with the whole earth gathering near Madurai. Vishnu, the brother of Meenakshi, prepared to travel from his holy abode at Vaikuntam to preside over the marriage. Due to a divine play, he was tricked by the Deva, Indra and was delayed on the way. After the marriage, the pair ruled over Madurai for a long time and then assumed divine forms as Sundareswarar and Meenakshi, the presiding deities of the temple. Following the tradition, every evening, before closing the temple, a ritual procession led by drummers and a brass ensemble carries the image of Sundareswarar to Meenakshi’s bedroom to consummate the union, to be taken back the next morning in dawn. The marriage is celebrated annually as Chithirai Thiruvizha in Madurai. During the period of Nayakarrule in Madurai, the ruler Thirumalai Nayakar linked the festival.


Temple wall painting depicting its founding legend

The Meenakshi temple is believed to have been founded by Indra (king of Devacelestial deities).While he was on a pilgrimage to atone for his misdeeds. He felt his burden lifting as he neared the swayambu lingam (self formed lingam, a representation of Shiva used for worship in temples) of Madurai. He ascribed this miracle to the lingam and constructed the temple to enshrine it. Indra worshipped Shiva, who caused golden lotuses to appear in the nearby pool. Tamil literature speaks of the temple over the last two millennia. Thirugnanasambandar, the famous Hindu saint of Saiva philosophy, mentioned this temple as early as the 7th century, and described the deity as Aalavai Iraivan.  The initiative to some changes the structure was taken by first Nayak king of Madurai, Viswanatha Nayak (1559–1600) under the supervision of Ariyanatha Mudaliar, the prime minister of the Nayak Dynastyand the founder of the Poligar System. The original design by Vishwanatha Nayak in 1560 was substantially expanded to the current structure during the reign of Thirumalai Nayak (1623–55). He took considerable interest in erecting many complexes inside the temple. His major contributions are the Vasantha Mandapam for celebrating vasanthorsavam (spring festival) and Kilikoondu Mandapam (corridor of parrots). The corridors of the temple tank and Meenatchi Nayakar Mandapam were built by Rani Mangammal.

Rous Peter (1786–1828), the Collector of Madurai in 1812, was nicknamed ‘Peter Pandian’ as he respected and treated people of all faiths equally. He donated a set of golden stirrups studded with diamonds and red stones to the temple. Goddess Meenatchi is believed to have saved Rous Peter from a fatal incident. He also wished that after his death, his body be buried in a position that would enable his eyes to face the temple.

During the period of early pandian kings, the king taxed the people for constructing this temple. People paid taxes and donations in the form of gold and silver. But the king wanted contribution as low as a bag of rice which would help in feeding the masans who constructed the temple. so the kings collected one handful of rice daily from every house. This would make few bags of rice in the month end. Thus people from all sectors of life contributed in building the temple. Thus, every family has an emotional attachment towards the temple.

Destruction by Muslim invaders

Early in the 14th century, disputes arose over the succession to the Pandya throne. Taking notice of these events, Ala-ud-din of Delhi, dispatched his general, Malik Kafur, in 1310 to invade the weakened kingdom. Malik Kafur marched south, ransacking kingdoms on the way and causing enormous changes to the political configuration of central and Southern India. He marched into Madurai, sacking the town, paralysing trade, suppressing public worship, and making civilian life miserable. The great Meenakshi temple with its fourteen towers was pulled down, destroying the nearby streets and buildings, and leaving only the two shrines of Sundaresvara and Meenakshi intact. The events are controversial: as another account describes

The destruction of the temple created a religious vacuum and paved the way for the spread of Islam among the Madurai’s inhabitants. The temple was rebuilt by Viswanatha Nayak (1559–1600), the first Nayak king of Madurai.

The temple


aerial image of a temple campus

An aerial view of Madurai city from atop the Meenakshi Amman temple

map indicating streets of a waste

Location of Meenakshi temple in Madurai

The temple is the geographic and ritual center of the ancient city of Madurai and one of the largest temple complexes in Tamil Nadu. The temple complex is divided into a number of concentric quadrangular enclosures contained by high masonry walls. It is one of the few temples in Tamil Nadu to have four entrances facing four directions. Vishwantha Nayaka allegedly redesigned the city of Madurai in accordance with the principles laid down by Shilpa Shastras (Sanskrit: śilpa śāstra, also anglicized as silpa sastra meaning rules of architecture) relevant to urban planning. The city was laid out in the shape of square with a series of concentric streets culminating from the temple. These squares continue to retain their traditional names, Aadi, Chittirai, Avani-moola and Masi streets, corresponding to Tamil month names. Ancient Tamil classics mention that the temple was the center of the city and the streets happened to be radiating out like lotus and its petals. The temple prakarams (outer precincts of a temple) and streets accommodate an elobrate festival calendar in which dramatic processions circumabulate the shrines at varying distances from the centre. The vehicles used in processions are progressively more massive the further they travel from the centre. The complex is in around 45 acres (180,000 m2)

Plan of Meenakshi Amman Temple
.A Shrine of God Sundareshwar.AA Pudu mandapam (Timmalas Choultry).B Slirine of Goddess Mindksbt-devl.C Small shrine of Ganera.D Small shrini; of Siibrahmanya.E Vcdi or Altar.F Nandi Pavilion.U Javandijvara mandapam.H Navagraha or nine planets.I Large Gancja.jl Shrines of Natervar.K Poets College.L Tank of Golden Lilies.M Mudali Pillai mandapam.O Ashta 5akti hall.P i6 pillar mandapam.Q Thousand pillar mandapam.R Viravasantaraya mandapam, S Kaiyana Sundara mandapam. T Servaikaran mandapam. U Lingam. W Chitra mandapam. Y I. llamvatta-siddha. Z Madura Nayaka temple.I-I\ Four outer Gopurams. V Tiruvachi Gopuram. \*I. VIII. L\ Three Gopurams of the second Prakar^.X, XI. Gates to the Minakshl prakdrant.^I^, Gate between the temples.XII, .^shta-Jakti mandapam.


Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple North Tower

Close up of gopurum figures

The temple is surrounded by gopurams (gateway tower),- There are 14 gopuram the tallest of which, the famous southern tower, rises to over 170 ft (52 m) and was built in 1559. The oldest gopuram is the eastern one, built byMaravarman Sundara Pandyan during 1216-1238 Each gopuram is a multi-storeyed structure, covered with thousands of stone figures of animals, gods and demons painted in bright hues. The outer gopuram presents steeply pyramidal tower encrusted with plaster figures, while the inner gopuram serves as the entrance to the inner enclosure of Sundareswarar shrine.


golden roof of a shrine
The golden shrine over the sanctum of Meenakshi
sculpture of a Hindu deity
Inside the shrine of Meenakshi
temple tank with steps surrounding it
The Golden Lotus Temple tank
sculptures in a hall
Sculptures inside the temple

The central shrine of Meenakshi Amman temple and her consort Sundareswarar are surrounded by three enclosures and each of these are protected by four minor towers at the four points of the compass, the outer tower growing larger and reaching higher to the corresponding inner one. The Meenakshi shrine has the emerald-hued black stone image of Meenakshi. The Sundareswarar shrine lies at the centre of the complex, suggesting that the ritual dominance of the goddess developed later. Both the Meenakshi and Sundareswarar shrines have gold platedVimanam (tower over sanctum). The golden top can be seen from a great distance in the west through the apertures of two successive towers. The area covered by the shrine of Sundareswarar is exactly one fourth of the area of the temple and that of Meenakshi is one fourth that of Sundareswarar.

The tall sculpture of Ganesh carved of single stone located outside the Sundareswarar shrine in the path from Meenashi shrine is called the Mukuruny Vinayakar. A large measure of rice measuring 3 kurini (a measure) is shaped into a big ball of sacrifice and hence the Ganesh is called Mukkurni Vinayagar (threekurinis). This deity is believed to be found during a 17th-century excavation process to dig the Mariamman temple tank.[27]

Temple tank and surrounding portico

The sacred temple tank Porthamarai Kulam (“Pond with the golden lotus”), is 165 ft (50 m) by 120 ft (37 m) in size.  In the Tamil legends, the lake is supposed to judge the worth of a new piece of literature. Authors place their works here and the poorly written works are supposed to sink and the scholastic ones are supposed to float, Tirukkural by Tiruvalluvar was one such work.

Only a fraction of 17th and 18th century paintings of Nayak period survives and one such portion is found in the small portico on the western side of the tank. It depicts the marriage of Sundareswarar and Meenkashi attended by Vijayaranga Chokkanatha and Rani Mangammal. The painting is executed on a vivid red background, with delicate black linework and large areas of white, green and ochre. The celestial couple is seated inside an architectural frame with a flowering tree in the background.


The corridor surrounding the sanctum the Meenakshi is called kilikoondu Mandapam(“bird cage corridor”). The space was once used to keep green parrots that were trained to utter the name of Meenakshi. There are two large cages full of squawking green parrots.

The Kambatadi Mandapam (“Hall of temple tree”) with its seated Nandi (sacred bull) has various manifestations of Shiva carved and also contains the famous “Marriage of Meenakshi” sculpture. Sculptures of Shiva and Kali trying to out-dance one another are pelted with balls of ghee by devotees. A golden flagstaff with 32 sections symbolizes the human backbone and is surrounded by various gods, including Durgaand Siddar.

The Puthu Mandapam (“new hall”) constructed by Tirumala Nayak contains large number of sculptures.It is situated opposite to the east gopuram.

The Ashta Shakthi Mandapam (“Hall of eight goddess”) is the first hall in the entrance of Meenakshi shrine tower near to East Tower. Ashta indicates eight and Shakthirefers to goddess – the hall has statues of eight goddesses. The gopurams (towers) can be viewed from this hall. The passage was named for eight forms of goddessShakti carved on its pillars. Other sculptures and paintings depict the Tiruvilayadal(holy games of Shiva). The sculptures of heroes of Mahabharata, the Pancha pandavas can be seen in the Pancha Pandava Mandapam (Hall of Pandavas).

The Viravasantharaya Mandapam is a large hall with huge corridors. To the south of this hall is the kalyana mandapam, to the south of the pillared hall, is where the marriage of Shiva and Parvati is celebrated every year during the Chithirai Festival in mid-April. The golden images of Meenakshi and Sundareswarar are carried into the 16th century oonjal mandapam (swing corridor) and placed on the swing every Friday at 5:30 p.m. The shrine has a 3-storied gopuram guarded by two stern dwarapalakas(guardians) and supported by golden, rectangular columns that bear lotus markings. Along the perimeter of the chamber, granite panels of the divine couple are present. The hall is situated in the western bank of the temple tank.

The Mudali Pillai Mandapam or Iruttu Mandapam (Dark hall) is a wide and long hall built by Muthu Pillai during 1613. On the pillars of the halls, there are fine sculptures depicting the story of Shiva taking the form of Bikshadanar to teach the sages a lesson.

The Mangayarkarasi mandapam is a newly built hall situated opposite to the marriage halls and bears the name of saindy queen, Mangayarkarasi who contributed to Saivism and Tamil language. To the south of Mangayarkarasi mandapam lies theServaikarar Mandapam, a hall built by Marudu brothers in 1795. The Nagara mandapam (Hall of beating drums) lies opposite to Sundareswarar shrine was built by Achaya Rayar, the minister of Rani Mangammal in 1635.The Kolu Mandapam is a hall for displaying dolls during the Navarathri festival celebrated during September–October. This hall is situated in the second corridor of the Meenakshi shrine at the western side.

Hall of Thousand Pillars

granite columned hall with granite roofing

A section of the Thousand Pillar Hall

The Meenakshi Nayakkar Mandapam (“Hall of 1000 pillars”) has two rows of pillars carved with images of yali (mythological beast with body of lion and head of an elephant), commonly used as the symbol of Nayak power. It is situated to the north of Sundareswarar flag staff hall. The Thousand Pillar Hall contains 985 (instead of 1000) carved pillars.The hall was built by Ariyanatha Mudaliar in 1569 and blends engineering skill and artistic vision. Ariyanatha Mudaliar was prime minister and general of Viswanatha Nayak, the first Nayaka of Madurai (1559–1600). He was also the founder of Poligar System, the quasi-feudal organization of the country dividing it into multiple palayams or small provinces in which each palayam was ruled by a palayakkarar or a petty chief. At the entrance of the hall is the statue of Ariyanatha Mudaliar seated on a horse-back, flanking one side of the entrance to the temple. The statue is periodically garlanded by worshippers. Each pillar in the hall is a carved monument of the Dravidian sculpture. The more prominent among the carved figures are those of Rati (wife of Kama), Karthikeya, Ganesha, Shiva as a wandering mendicant and endless number of yalis (mythical figures of lions). There is a Temple Art Museum in the hall where icons, photographs, drawings, and other exhibits of the 1200 years old history of the temple are displayed. Just outside this hall, towards the west, are the Musical Pillars. Each pillar, when struck, produces a different musical note.

Religious significance of the temple

Sculpture of Nataraja

Depiction of the god Shiva as the cosmic dancer Nataraja

A distinct feature of Meenakshi in terms of iconography is the presence of parrot in her right hand. The parrot is generally associated with the Vaishnava azhwar saintAndal.”Pancha Sabhai” refers to the five royal courts of Nataraja (dancing form of Shiva) where he performed cosmic dance. The Tamil word velli means silver and ambalam means stage or altar. This massive Nataraja sculpture is enclosed in a huge silver altar and hence called “Velli Ambalam” (silver abode). This is a special figure of Natarja which usually differs from Chola bronzes; in the Chola images, Nataraja is shown dancing with his left leg raised, but this sculpture has the right leg raised.According to the Tiruvilayaadal Puranam (Shiva’s sacred games), this is on the request of Rajasekara Pandya, who was a sincere devotee of Shiva. He requested the deity to change his position, as he felt that keeping the same foot raised would put enormous strain and got a graceful acquiescence from the divine master.


The music of the tavil (shown) and the nadaswaram as considered essential to temple worship


There are close to 50 priests in the temple who perform the puja (rituals) during festivals and on a daily basis. Like other Shiva temples of Tamil Nadu, the priests belong to Shivaite to the Adishaivas, a Brahmin sub-caste. The priests live in a closed area north of the temple. The temple has a six time pooja calendar everyday, each comprising four rituals namely abhisheka (sacred bath), alangaram (decoration),neivethanam (food offerings) and deepa aradanai (waving of lamps) for both Meenakshi and Sundareswarar. The puja (worship) ceremonies are held amidst music with nadhaswaram (pipe instrument) and tavil (percussion instrument), religious instructions in the Vedas by priests and prostration by worshippers in front of the temple mast.The common practise is to worship Meenakshi before Sundareswarar. Margazhi (December–January) ritual is prominent one for winning a perfect, god-like husband – it is Meenakshi’s ennai kappu festival. Aligned with the cardinal points, the street plans forms a giant mandala (group) whose sacred properties are believed to be activated during the mass clockwise circumambulation of the central temple.


Madurai temple festival

The most important festival associated with the temple is the “Meenakshi Thirukalyanam” (the divine marriage of Meenakshi) that is celebrated in April every year. The wedding of the divine couple is regarded as a classic instance of south Indian female-dominated marriage, an arrangement referred as “Madurai marriage”. The male dominated marriage is called “Chidambaram marriage”, referring to Shiva’s uncontested dominance, ritual and mythic, at the famous Shiva temple of Chidhambaram. The marriage brings together rural and urban people, deities and mortals, Saivas (those who worship Shiva) and Vaishnavas (those who worship Vishnu) in order to celebrate Meenakshi as the royal monarch. During the one-month period, there are a number of events including the “Ther Thiruvizhah” (chariot festival) and “Theppa Thiruvizhah” (float festival). Major Hindu festivals like Navrathri and Shivrathri are celebrated in the temple. Like most Shakti temples in Tamil Nadu, the Fridays during the Tamil months of Aadi (July–August) and Thai (January–February) are celebrated in the temple by thousands of devotees. “Avani Moola Utsavam” is a 10-day festival mainly devoted to Sundareswarar describes his various Thiruvilayadal meaning Shiva’s sacred games.


Its my native place , must visit this temple you can feel the  divine.its one of the finest temple in india

History of Taj Mahal


The Taj Mahal of Agra is one of the Seven Wonders of the World, for reasons more than just looking magnificent. It’s the history of Taj Mahal that adds a soul to its magnificence: a soul that is filled with love, loss, remorse, and love again. Because if it was not for love, the world would have been robbed of a fine example upon which people base their relationships. An example of how deeply a man loved his wife, that even after she remained but a memory, he made sure that this memory would never fade away. This man was the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, who was head-over-heels in love with Mumtaz Mahal, his dear wife. She was a Muslim Persian princess (her name Arjumand Banu Begum before marriage) and he was the son of the Mughal Emperor Jehangir and grandson of Akbar the Great. It was at the age of 14 that he met Mumtaz and fell in love with her. Five years later in the year 1612, they got married.

Mumtaz Mahal, an inseparable companion of Shah Jahan, died in 1631, while giving birth to their 14th child. It was in the memory of his beloved wife that Shah Jahan built a magnificent monument as a tribute to her, which we today know as the “Taj Mahal”. The construction of Taj Mahal started in the year 1631. Masons, stonecutters, inlayers, carvers, painters, calligraphers, dome-builders and other artisans were requisitioned from the whole of the empire and also from Central Asia and Iran, and it took approximately 22 years to build what we see today. An epitome of love, it made use of the services of 22,000 laborers and 1,000 elephants. The monument was built entirely out of white marble, which was brought in from all over India and central Asia. After an expenditure of approximately 32 million rupees, Taj Mahal was finally completed in the year 1653.

It was soon after the completion of Taj Mahal that Shah Jahan was deposed by his own son Aurangzeb and was put under house arrest at nearby Agra Fort. Shah Jahan, himself also, lies entombed in this mausoleum along with his wife. Moving further down the history, it was at the end of the 19th century that British Viceroy Lord Curzon ordered a sweeping restoration project, which was completed in 1908, as a measure to restore what was lost during the Indian rebellion of 1857: Taj being blemished by British soldiers and government officials who also deprived the monument of its immaculate beauty by chiseling out precious stones and lapis lazuli from its walls. Also, the British style lawns that we see today adding on to the beauty of Taj were remodeled around the same time. Despite prevailing controversies, past and present threats from Indo-Pak war and environmental pollution, this epitome of love continuous to shine and attract people from all over the world.

God can Only Judge ME